Cách làm dạng bài Summary Completion trong IELTS Reading
Dạng bài Summary Completion rất thường hay xuất hiện trong bài thi IELTS Reading. Trong bài viết này IELTS Master sẽ mách bạn cách làm bài sao cho hiệu quả nhất, cùng theo dõi nhé!
A. Các dạng điền từ trong đoạn tóm tắt
Điền từ trong đoạn tóm tắt – Summary completion chủ yếu muốn kiểm tra người đọc về việc nắm nội dung khái quát của bài đọc, xác minh được vài chi tiết quan trọng và chính xác trong bài đọc và (không chỉ trong dạng này) khả năng hiểu biết về synonyms và paraphrases.
Nhìn chung, có 2 dạng:
- Dạng 1: Điền từ trong đoạn tóm tắt không có đáp án cho trước
Dạng 1: Điền từ trong đoạn tóm tắt không có đáp án cho trước
- Dạng 2: Điền từ trong đoạn tóm tắt với đáp án cho trước
*LƯU Ý: dạng này không yêu cầu bạn điền từ mà điền chữ cái đại diện cho từng đáp án trong khung.
Dạng 2: Điền từ trong đoạn tóm tắt với đáp án cho trước
B. Cách làm dạng bài Summary Completion – IELTS Reading
Đầu tiên bạn nên đọc kỹ yêu cầu đề bài để nắm về số từ, số bạn cần điền (dạng 1). Nếu là dạng 2, bạn cần điền chữ cái đại diện cho từng đáp án được cho sẵn chứ không điền từng từ một.
Đọc lướt nhanh đoạn cần điền từ để nắm sơ lược về nội dung đoạn tóm tắt
Tiếp theo, cần xác minh loại từ cần điền cho từng chỗ trống (danh từ, động từ, tính từ, số) và tự lựa chọn trước một số đáp án cho từng câu (nếu được) dựa trên loại từ để có xác suất đúng cao hơn (dạng 2).
Sau đó bạn cần đọc kỹ nội dung vài câu hỏi đầu và so sánh với đoạn văn để nhận biết đáp án có thể nằm trong đoạn nào. Từ đó đọc kỹ từng câu trong đoạn văn liên quan để lựa chọn từ phù hợp.
Thông thường, đáp án của từng câu hỏi sẽ trải đều trong đoạn văn theo thứ tự từ trên xuống, nên chỉ cần bạn chắc chắn về nội dung của 1,2 câu hỏi đầu, bạn có thể dễ dàng đọc và xác minh các đáp án tiếp theo, vì chắc chắn nó sẽ xuất hiện sau đáp án mới nhất bạn vừa tìm.
Trong quá trình tìm đáp án, nếu quá 2-3 phút bạn vẫn chưa tìm ra đáp án và nên đánh dấu lại và bỏ qua, nếu còn thời gian thì quay lại hoàn thành sau. Dù gì bạn cũng đã xác định nó nằm ở phần nào ở đoạn văn rồi.
Để có thể tự mình xác định đáp án mình tìm ra có phải đáp án đúng hay không, bạn nên chú ý kỹ cụm từ ngay trước và ngay sau chỗ trống cần điền và so sánh với nội dung trong bài xem chúng có được thay thế cho nhau bằng synonyms hay không.
Đối với dạng 2, khi bạn đã tìm ra trong bài đọc từ có thể là đáp án cho câu hỏi, bạn không điền từ vừa tìm được đó mà hãy so sánh nghĩa của từ đó với khung đáp án được cho sẵn. Khi đã tìm thấy cặp từ có nghĩa tương đồng nhau, bạn điền chữ cái đại diện cho từ đó vào chỗ trống và answer sheet (khá nhiều bạn đã mắc sai lầm điền từ có nghĩa tương đồng vào thay vì chữ cái và dẫn đến mất hết điểm)
Ở dạng 2 này, bạn tốn thêm 1 ít thời gian để so sánh từ trong bài viết và khung đáp án. Vì vậy, dạng 2 này thuộc dạng câu hỏi khó.
Cuối cùng, khi đã hoàn thành, bạn nên dành 3-5 giây đọc lướt qua đoạn tóm tắt một lần nữa để kiểm tra các câu văn có phù hợp về ngữ nghĩa và ngữ pháp hay không.
C. Bài tập
Bài tập 1. Designing and shipping after the restriction of hazardous substances (Rohs) directive
- Almost two months after the European Union’s ban on the use of six environmentally unfriendly materials went into effect, designers have clear evidence that failure to meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive means lost sales. Palm Inc. recently announced that its Treo 650 smart phone is no longer being shipped to Europe, since it doesn’t meet RoHS requirements. And several Apple Computer Inc. products will not be sold in Europe for the same reason.
- The EU directive, which took effect on 1st July, covers lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Electronics vendors worldwide are working to eliminate those substances from nearly all new products developed for the European market, while also adapting their manufacturing processes to a lead (Pb)-free environment.
- But that is only the beginning. Other countries, including China, Taiwan and South Korea, and certain U.S. states are creating their own “green” or RoHS-like legislation. That means RoHS compliance must become an integral part of a designer’s development process, with RoHS checks at each step: concept, development, prototype, first builds and volume production.
- Major companies will run the gamut from finding component databases of qualified green components to taking due care to prove compliance and developing processes that allow for the higher-temperature requirements of Pb-free manufacturing. And for designers, those are just the tip of the iceberg. A host of technical and reliability issues remain to be sorted out in Pb-free board processing and soldering.
- What it comes down to is what Ken Stanvick, senior vice president at Design Chain Associates, calls a lack of ‘tribal knowledge’ on design RoHS- compliant systems. ‘We had a great tribal knowledge when it came to dealing with leaded systems, but we haven’t built up that same amount of knowledge for Pb-free,’ he said. ‘Every problem will be blamed on Pb-free until it’s been worked out. We need to figure out tests that replicate more of the environment and different stresses that we’re going to see in this new system.’
- Manny Marcano, president and CEO of EMA Design Automation Inc. (Rochester, N.Y.), cited the impact of parts obsolescence, including the need to redesign older products and the resultant emphasis on component engineering at the expense of conceptual design. A key challenge is identifying RoHS design specifications as early as possible in the design process, he said.
- But even before they get to that point, designers must understand whether they are designing a fully compliant product or one that’s subject to some exemptions, said Robert Chinn, director for consultant firm PRTM (Mountain View, Calif.). ‘This affects their design parameters,’ he said. ‘Previously, they looked at components based on size, performance, electrical parameters, features and functionality. Now they have to add on a new constraint, revolving around environmental compliance: Is it RoHS 6-compliant or is it RoHS 5-compliant?’ (RoHS 6 components eliminate all six of the banned substances, while RoHS 5 models, because of exemptions, still contain lead.)
- If designers do not take RoHS seriously, any country that can prove a product does not comply can levy fines against the vendor. That can cost market share, Marcano said, since noncompliant companies become non¬competitive. And then, not being prepared can mean belatedly diverting resources to RoHS compliance, causing missed market opportunities.
- But many industry observers believe smaller and medium-size companies will continue to be complacent about the RoHS transition until some major company is cited for non-compliance. ‘When that happens, there will be an earthquake throughout the industry, and it will wake up every design engineer,’ said Steve Schultz, director of strategic planning and communications at Avnet Logistics and program manager for the distributor’s compliance efforts for RoHS in the Americas.
- ‘The product developer’s RoHS concerns center on the fear of lost revenue – from a product ban, a customer who demands a RoHS-compliant product that the company doesn’t have, or competition’, said Harvey Stone, managing director for consultancy GoodBye Chain Group (Colorado Springs, Colo.). ‘With price, quality and service being relatively equal, a savvy customer is going to choose a RoHS-compliant product,’ he said.
- Meanwhile, designers are looking over their shoulders at several other – and potentially stricter – environmental regulations in the pipeline. These include the EU’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals legislation, which could restrict the use of thousands of chemicals, and its Energy¬using Products (EuP) directive, which will initially target energy-efficiency requirements.
Write the correct letter A-P in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
The EU has banned the use of six materials that are 1………….. to the environment. This means that if designers do not meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, sales will 2………….. Similar legislation is being put together around the world, which indicates that RoHS compliance needs to become a 3…………… part of a designer’s development process.
RoHS checks at every step from concept to mass production is also a necessity. But 4………… technical and reliability problems remain to be 5…………. Previously, the performance etc. of components were 6…………….but now a new 7…………….needs to be taken into account:environmental compliance.
Bài tập 2: The true cost of food
A. For more than forty years the cost of food has been rising. It has now reached a point where a growing number of people believe that it is far too high, and that bringing it down will be one of the great challenges of the twenty first century. That cost, however, is not in immediate cash. In the West at least, most food is now far cheaper to buy in relative terms than it was in 1960. The cost is in the collateral damage of the very methods of food production that have made the food cheaper: in the pollution of water, the enervation of soil, the destruction of wildlife, the harm to animal welfare and the threat to human health caused by modern industrial agriculture.
B. First mechanisation, then mass use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides, then monocultures, then battery rearing of livestock, and now genetic engineering – the onward march of intensive farming has seemed unstoppable in the last half-century, as the yields of produce have soared. But the damage it has caused has been colossal. In Britain, for example, many of our best-loved farmland birds, such as the skylark, the grey partridge, the lapwing and the corn bunting, have vanished from huge stretches of countryside, as have even more wild flowers and insects. This is a direct result of the way we have produced our food in the last four decades. Thousands of miles of hedgerows, thousands of ponds, have disappeared from the landscape. The faecal filth of salmon farming has driven wild salmon from many of the sea lochs and rivers of Scotland. Natural soil fertility is dropping in many areas because of continuous industrial fertiliser and pesticide use, while the growth of algae is increasing in lakes because of the fertiliser run-off.
C. Put it all together and it looks like a battlefield, but consumers rarely make the connection at the dinner table. That is mainly because the costs of all this damage are what economists refer to as externalities: they are outside the main transaction, which is for example producing and selling a field of wheat, and are borne directly by neither producers nor consumers. To many, the costs may not even appear to be financial at all, but merely aesthetic – a terrible shame, but nothing to do with money. And anyway they, as consumers of food, certainly aren’t paying for it, are they?
D . But the costs to society can actually be quantified and, when added up, can amount to staggering sums. A remarkable exercise in doing this has been carried out by one of the world’s leading thinkers on the future of agriculture, Professor Jules Pretty, Director of the Centre for Environment and Society at the University of Essex. Professor Pretty and his colleagues calculated the externalities of British agriculture for one particular year. They added up the costs of repairing the damage it caused, and came up with a total figure of £2,343m. This is equivalent to £208 for every hectare of arable land and permanent pasture, almost as much again as the total government and EU spend on British farming in that year. And according to Professor Pretty, it was a conservative estimate.
E. The costs included: £120m for removal of pesticides; £16m for removal of nitrates; £55m for removal of phosphates and soil; £23m for the removal of the bug Cryptosporidium from drinking water by water companies; £125m for damage to wildlife habitats, hedgerows and dry stone walls; £1,113m from emissions of gases likely to contribute to climate change; £106m from soil erosion and organic carbon losses; £169m from food poisoning; and £607m from cattle disease. Professor Pretty draws a simple but memorable conclusion from all this: our food bills are actually threefold. We are paying for our supposedly cheaper food in three separate ways: once over the counter, secondly through our taxes, which provide the enormous subsidies propping up modern intensive farming, and thirdly to clean up the mess that modern farming leaves behind.
F. So can the true cost of food be brought down? Breaking away from industrial agriculture as the solution to hunger may be very hard for some countries, but in Britain, where the immediate need to supply food is less urgent, and the costs and the damage of intensive farming have been clearly seen, it may be more feasible. The government needs to create sustainable, competitive and diverse farming and food sectors, which will contribute to a thriving and sustainable rural economy, and advance environmental, economic, health, and animal welfare goals.
G. But if industrial agriculture is to be replaced, what is a viable alternative? Professor Pretty feels that organic farming would be too big a jump in thinking and in practices for many farmers. Furthermore, the price premium would put the produce out of reach of many poorer consumers. He is recommending the immediate introduction of a’Greener Food Standard’, which would push the market towards more sustainable environmental practices than the current norm, while not requiring the full commitment to organic production. Such a standard would comprise agreed practices for different kinds of farming, covering agrochemical use, soil health, land management, water and energy use, food safety and animal health. It could go a long way, he says, to shifting consumers as well as farmers towards a more sustainable system of agriculture.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
Professor Pretty concludes that our 1………………are higher than most people realise, because we make three different types of payment. He feels it is realistic to suggest that Britain should reduce its reliance on 2…………….
Although most farmers would be unable to adapt to 3……………… Professor Pretty wants the government to initiate change by establishing what he refers to as a 4……………. He feels this would help to change the attitudes of both 5………………. and………………..
Bài tập 3: Ant intelligence
When we think of intelligent members of the animal kingdom, the creatures that spring immediately to mind are apes and monkeys. But in fact the social lives of some members of the insect kingdom are sufficiently complex to suggest more than a hint of intelligence.
However, in ants there is no cultural transmission – everything must be encoded in the genes – whereas in humans the opposite is true. Only basic instincts are carried in the genes of a newborn baby, other skills being learned from others in the community as the child
Among these, the world of the ant has come in for considerable scrutiny lately, and the idea that ants demonstrate sparks of cognition has certainly not been rejected by those involved in these investigations.
Ants store food, repel attackers and use chemical signals to contact one another in case of attack. Such chemical communication can be compared to the human use of visual and auditory channels (as in religious chants, advertising images and jingles, political slogans and martial music) to arouse and propagate moods and attitudes. The biologist Lewis Thomas wrote, ‘Ants are so much like human beings as to be an embarrassment. They farm fungi, raise aphids as livestock, launch armies to war, use chemical sprays to alarm and confuse enemies, capture slaves, engage in child labour, exchange information ceaselessly. They do everything but watch television.’ grows up. It may seem that this cultural continuity gives US a huge advantage over ants. They have never mastered fire nor progressed. Their fungus farming and aphid herding crafts are sophisticated when compared to the agricultural skills of humans five thousand years ago but have been totally overtaken by modem human agribusiness.
Or have they? The farming methods of ants are at least sustainable. They do not ruin environments or use enormous amounts of energy. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the crop farming of ants may be more sophisticated and adaptable than was thought.
Ants were farmers fifty million years before humans were. Ants can’t digest the cellulose in leaves – but some fungi can. The ants therefore cultivate these fungi in their nests, bringing them leaves to feed on, and then
use them as a source of food. Fanner ants secrete antibiotics to control other fungi that might act as ‘weeds’, and spread waste to fertilise the crop.
It was once thought that the fungus that ants cultivate was a single type that they had propagated, essentially unchanged from the distant past. Not so. Ulrich Mueller of Maryland and his colleagues genetically screened 862 different types of fungi taken from ants’ nests. These turned out to be highly diverse: it seems that ants are continually domesticating new species. Even more impressively, DNA analysis of the fungi suggests that the ants improve or modify the fungi by regularly swapping and sharing strains with neighbouring ant colonies.
Whereas prehistoric man had no exposure to urban lifestyles – the forcing house of intelligence – the evidence suggests that ants have lived in urban settings for close on a hundred million years, developing and maintaining underground cities of specialised chambers and tunnels.
When we survey Mexico City, Tokyo, Los Angeles, we are amazed at what has been accomplished by humans. Yet Hoelldobler and Wilson’s magnificent work for ant lovers, The Ants, describes a supercolony of the ant Formica yessensis on the Ishikari Coast of Hokkaido. This ’megalopolis’ was reported to be composed of 360 million workers and a million queens living in 4,500 interconnected nests across a territory of 2.7 square kilometres.
Such enduring and intricately meshed levels of technical achievement outstrip by far anything achieved by our distant ancestors. We hail as masterpieces the cave paintings in southern France and elsewhere, dating back some 20,000 years. Ant societies existed in something like their present form more than seventy million years ago. Beside this, prehistoric man looks technologically primitive. Is this then some kind of intelligence, albeit of a different kind?
Research conducted at Oxford, Sussex and Zurich Universities has shown that when desert ants return from a foraging trip, they navigate by integrating bearings and distances, which they continuously update in their heads. They combine the evidence of visual landmarks with a mental library of local directions, all within a framework which is consulted and updated. So ants can learn too.
And in a twelve-year programme of work, Ryabko and Reznikova have found evidence that ants can transmit very complex messages. Scouts who had located food in a maze returned to mobilise their foraging teams. They engaged in contact sessions, at the end of which the scout was removed in order to observe what her team might do. Often the foragers proceeded to the exact spot in the maze where the food had been. Elaborate precautions were taken to prevent the foraging team using odour clues. Discussion now centres on whether the route through the maze is communicated as a ‘left¬right’ sequence of turns or as a ‘compass bearing and distance’ message.
During the course of this exhaustive study, Reznikova has grown so attached to her laboratory ants that she feels she knows them as individuals – even without the paint spots used to mark them. It’s no surprise that Edward Wilson, in his essay, ‘In the company of ants’, advises readers who ask what to do with the ants in their kitchen to: ‘Watch where you step. Be careful of little lives.
Write the correct letter, A-O, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
ANTS AS FARMERS
Ants have sophisticated methods of farming, including herding livestock and growing crops, which are in many ways similar to those used in human agriculture. The ants cultivate a large number of different species of edible fungi which convert 1………… into a form which they can digest. They use their own natural 2……….as weed-killers and also use unwanted materials as 3………..
Genetic analysis shows they constantly upgrade these fungi by developing new species and by 4…………. Species with neighbouring ant colonies. In fact, the farming methods of ants could be said to be more advanced than human agribusiness, since they use 5………. methods, they do not affect the 6………….. and do not waste 7……………
Bài tập 4: Pulling strings to build pyamids
No one knows exactly how the pyramids were built. Marcus Chown reckons the answer could be ‘hanging in the air’.
The pyramids of Egypt were built more than three thousand years ago, and no one knows how. The conventional picture is that tens of thousands of slaves dragged stones on sledges. But there is no evidence to the monuments of Egypt, she noticed a hieroglyph that showed a row of men standing in odd postures. They were holding what looked like ropes that led, via some kinD of mechanical system, to a giant bird in the sky. she wondered if perhaps the bird was actually a giant kite, and the men were using it to lift a heavy object.
Intrigued, Clemmons contacted Morteza Gharib, aeronautics professor at the California Institute of Technology. He was fascinated by the idea. ‘Coming from Iran, I have a keen interest in Middle Eastern science/ he says. He too was puzzled by the picture that had sparked Clemmons’s interest. The object in the sky apparently had wings far too short and wide for a bird. ‘The possibility certainly existed that it was a kite,’ he says. And since he needed a summer project for his student Emilio Graff, investigating the possibility of using kites as heavy lifters seemed like a good idea.Gharib and Graff set themselves the task of raising a 4.5-metre stone column from horizontal to vertical, using no source of energy except the wind. Their initial calculations and scale-model wind-tunnel experiments convinced them they wouldn’t need a strong wind to lift the 33.5-tonne column. Even a modest force, if sustained over a long time, would do. The key was to use a pulley system that would magnify the applied force. So they rigged up a tent-shaped scarfold directly above the tip of the horizontal column, with pulleys suspended from the scaffold’s apex. The idea was that as one end of the column rose, the base would roll across the ground on a trolley.
Earlier this year, the team put Clemmons’s unlikely theory to the test, using a 40-square- metre rectangular nylon sail. The kite lifted the column clean off the ground. We were absolutely stunned,’ Gharib says. ‘The instant the sail opened into the wind, a huge force was generated and the column was raised to the vertical in a mere 40 seconds.’
The wind was blowing at a gentle 16 to 20 kilometres an hour, little more than half what they thought would be needed, what they had failed to reckon with was what happened when the kite was opened. There was a huge initial force – five times larger than the steady state force,’ Gharib says. This jerk meant that kites could lift huge weights, Gharib realised. Even a 300-tonne column could have been lifted to the vertical with 40 or so men and four or five sails. So Clemmons was right: the pyramid, builders could have used kites to lift massive stones into place, whether they actually did is another matter,’ Gharib says. There are no pictures showing the construction of the pyramids, so there is no way to tell what really happened. The evidence for using kites to move large stones is no better or worse than the evidence for the brute force method,’ Gharib says.
Indeed, the experiments have left many specialists unconvinced. The evidence for kite¬lifting is non-existent,’ says Willeke Wendrich, an associate professor of Egyptology at the University of California, Los Àngeles.
Others feel there is more of a case for the theory. Harnessing the wind would not have been a problem for accomplished sailors like the Egyptians. And they are known to have used wooden pulleys, which could have been made strong enough to bear the weight of massive blocks of stone. In addition, there is some physical evidence that the ancient Egyptians were interested in flight. A wooden artefact found on the step pyramid at Saqqara looks uncannily like a modem glider. Although it dates from several hundred years after the building of the pyramids, its sophistication suggests that the Egyptians might have been developing ideas of flight for a long time. And other ancient civilisations certainly knew about kites; as early as 1250 BC, the Chinese were using them to deliver messages and dump flaming debris on their foes.
The experiments might even have practical uses nowadays. There are plenty of places around the globe where people have no access to heavy machinery, but do know how to deal with wind, sailing and basic mechanical principles. Gharib has already been contacted by a civil engineer in Nicaragua, who wants to put up buildings with adobe roofs supported by concrete arches on a site that heavy equipment can’t reach. His idea is to build the arenes horizontally, then lift them into place using kites. We’ve given him some design hints,’ says Gharib. We’re just waiting for him to report back.’ So whether they were actually used to build the pyramids or not, it seems that kites may make sensible construction tools in the 21 st century AD.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE FOR THEORY OFF KITE-LIFTING
The Egyptians had 1……………….. which could lift large pieces of 2……………….., and they knew how to use the energy of the wind from their skill as 3…………………
The discovery on one pyramid of an object which resembled a 4………………….. suggests they may have experimented with 5…………………… In addition, over two thousand years ago kites were used in China as weapons, as well as for sending 6…………………….
Bài tập 1: 1.C 2.J 3.F 4.H 5.K 6.L 7.A
Bài tập 2: 1. food bills/costs 2. (modern) intensive farming 3. (modern) intensive farming 4. organic farming 5. organic farming 6. farmers (and) consumers (in any order; both are required to get one mark)
Bài tập 3: 1.C 2.M 3.F 4.D 5.N 6.O 7.E
Bài tập 4: 1. (wooden) pulleys 2.stone 3. (accomplished) sailors 4. (modern) glider 5.flight6.messages
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